Prevent Cyber Attack From Swiss Cheese Slice Approach

In the 21st century, the internet has become an inseparable part of our daily lives. We need the internet to perform our daily tasks and to connect with the world around us.  The Internet is essential to check daily mail and perform office tasks. The students depend on the internet for learning and projects. From clothes to machinery to houses, everything is sought and bought on the internet. Of course, that means the internet is involved in financial transactions be it with banks or other people. The Internet is the fastest and most trustworthy source of communication.  We connect with our loved ones through emails, skype, and facetime. We get the entire information of what is happening around the world through a click on our smartphones, tablets, or computers. The internet also is important for medical research and development and is used in various procedures and techniques. Smart watches keep a track of our basic health vital in day-to-day life. That is the power and role of the internet in today’s world. With the internet becoming a part of our daily lives it is sad but important to know that the dangers of Cyber attacks are increasing every day.

First, let’s understand what is a cyber attack. It is an attempt by cybercriminals to disable one or more computers, steal data or use a breached computer for further cyberattack.  They either steal information like personal data, office data, and bank data or alter, reveal, or delete secret information. They do this through unauthorized access to the computer system. Cybercriminal aims to attack and destroy computer information systems, computer networks, infrastructure, and as well as personal computer systems. They either change the information or use it for their benefit. There  are different types of cyber attacks like 

Malware attacks, Phishing attacks, Password attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, SQL Injection attacks, Insider threats, Denial of Service attacks, etc. All this is as scary as it sounds. So protecting your computers from different types of cyber attacks is very important.


Cyber attacks first happened in 1988, more than three decades back. Since then their number and fear have been increasing every day and every year. As per the data collected, around 30,000 websites are hacked every day. It has also been reported that 64% of companies have experienced a cyberattack once in a lifetime. The number is huge. With this increase in threat, more and more strategies have been developed to maintain the safety of personal as well as company computer systems.

Some of the standard measures are:

  • Keeping the software updated
  • Installing antivirus or Firewall
  • Refrain from opening suspicious emails.
  • Keep access to data with a limited number of people.


         One of the most trustworthy is the Swiss Cheese Model. A cube of cheese tends to absorb Carbon Dioxide which forms inside it. When you cut the slices of cheese, every piece of cheese has holes scattered on it. But the interesting thing is that the holes of slices do not overlap the holes of other slices. It is on this fact on which the Swiss Cheese Model is based. It utilizes the fact that every piece of cheese has holes of different sizes and proportions which are scattered on it, in a way that when one slice is placed over the other,  they do not overlap. 

In the Swiss Cheese Model every slice of cheese is assigned a task, for example, Slice 1 preserves your system against physical attack. If some hacker manages to cross the first filter, the second slice which is the firewall will stop it at the second level. Next, if some virus manages to cross the second barrier, the third slice stops it from entering further. It has been designed to safeguard your system from malware attacks. Slice D has been designed to stop the hacker through the admin system. This setup goes on for multiple layers ensuring that your computer information system receives maximum security. In this Swiss Model, the only important thing is that the holes of different layers coincide with each other. In that case, the model is defective and changes need to be made.

The Swiss Cheese Model has become one of the successful tools against cyber attacks. It has been used to safeguard crucial data of the Aviation industry and medical services during Covid 19. It has preserved important information related to patient data, health conditions, medicines distributed, and emergency services provided. A Swiss Cheese Model is made up of two layers -Personal Responsibility and Shared Responsibility.


The Swiss Cheese Model was first introduced by a Professor at Manchester University James Reason in his book Human Error in 1991. The model is created on the fact that different people have different work traits and strengths.  In an organization, the weakness of one person can be covered up by another. So by assigning different people with different roles, one can provide multilayer protection to their organization. Hence safety and security is a joint responsibility rather than the duty of a single person. This model makes sure to screen the errors at every level to avoid big disasters. It also ensures better communication at every level so that there are no details missed out and a decision for the benefit of everyone can be made.

Just like safety and well functioning is to be maintained in companies, similarly, multiple-level protection is required for our computer systems. There is no one foolproof tool that will keep it safe. There has to be a multilayer shield to keep the information and data secure. With the increasing threats and dangers of cyber attacks, it is high time that we devise advanced ways to deal with them. Better techniques and technology to fight, and more safety will be systems and data. The Swiss Cheese Model is a strong technique to protect our systems and data. We should utilize them in a way to get the utmost safety for our Computer systems.


In conclusion, the Swiss Cheese Model is an effective approach to preventing cyber-attacks. It acknowledges that no single defense mechanism can provide complete protection against cyber threats, and instead advocates for multiple layers of defense that work together to create a comprehensive security posture. By using this approach, organizations can mitigate the risk of cyber-attacks and minimize the potential damage caused by successful attacks. It is important to note, however, that the effectiveness of the Swiss Cheese Model depends on the implementation of each layer of defense and the constant evaluation and updating of those defenses to address new and evolving threats. Overall, the Swiss Cheese Model can be an effective way for organizations to prevent cyber attacks and protect their sensitive data and assets.